1. A Party shall not adopt or maintain with respect to market access through establishment by an investor of the other Party, on the basis of its entire territory or on the basis of the territory of a national, provincial, territorial, regional or local level of government, a measure that:
(a) imposes limitations on:
(i) the number of enterprises that may carry out a specific economic activity whether in the form of numerical quotas, monopolies, exclusive suppliers or the requirement of an economic needs test;
(ii) the total value of transactions or assets in the form of numerical quotas or the requirement of an economic needs test;
(iii) the total number of operations or the total quantity of output expressed in terms of designated numerical units in the form of quotas or the requirement of an economic needs test;
(iv) the participation of foreign capital in terms of maximum percentage limit on foreign shareholding or the total value of individual or aggregate foreign investment; or
(v) the total number of natural persons that may be employed in a particular sector or that an enterprise may employ and who are necessary for, and directly related to, the performance of economic activity in the form of numerical quotas or the requirement of an economic needs test; or
(b) restricts or requires specific types of legal entity or joint venture through which an enterprise may carry out an economic activity.
2. For greater certainty, the following are consistent with paragraph 1:
(a) a measure concerning zoning and planning regulations affecting the development or use of land, or another analogous measure;
(b) a measure requiring the separation of the ownership of infrastructure from the ownership of the goods or services provided through that infrastructure to ensure fair competition, for example in the fields of energy, transportation and telecommunications;
(c) a measure restricting the concentration of ownership to ensure fair competition;
(d) a measure seeking to ensure the conservation and protection of natural resources and the environment, including a limitation on the availability, number and scope of concessions granted, and the imposition of a moratorium or ban;
(e) a measure limiting the number of authorisations granted because of technical or physical constraints, for example telecommunications spectrum and frequencies; or
(f) a measure requiring that a certain percentage of the shareholders, owners, partners, or directors of an enterprise be qualified or practice a certain profession such as lawyers or accountants.