1. For the purposes of this Article, technological measures means any technology, device, or component that, in the normal course of its operation, is designed to prevent or restrict acts, in respect of works, performances, or phonograms, that are not authorised by authors, performers or producers of phonograms, as provided for by the law of a Party. Without prejudice to the scope of copyright or related rights contained in the law of a Party, technological measures shall be deemed effective where the use of protected works, performances, or phonograms is controlled by authors, performers or producers of phonograms through the application of a relevant access control or protection process, such as encryption or scrambling, or a copy control mechanism, that achieves the objective of protection.
2. Each Party shall provide adequate legal protection and effective legal remedies against the circumvention of effective technological measures that are used by authors, performers or producers of phonograms in connection with the exercise of their rights in, and that restrict acts in respect of, their works, performances, and phonograms, which are not authorised by the authors, the performers or the producers of phonograms concerned or permitted by law.
3. In order to provide the adequate legal protection and effective legal remedies referred to in paragraph 2, each Party shall provide protection against at least:
(a) to the extent provided by its law:
(i) the unauthorised circumvention of an effective technological measure carried out knowingly or with reasonable grounds to know; and
(ii) the offering to the public by marketing of a device or product, including computer programs, or a service, as a means of circumventing an effective technological measure; and
(b) the manufacture, importation, or distribution of a device or product, including computer programs, or provision of a service that:
(i) is primarily designed or produced for the purpose of circumventing an effective technological measure; or
(ii) has only a limited commercially significant purpose other than circumventing an effective technological measure.
4. Under paragraph 3, the term “to the extent provided by its law” means that each Party has flexibility in implementing sub-paragraphs (a)(i) and (ii).
5. In implementing paragraphs 2 and 3, a Party shall not be obliged to require that the design of, or the design and selection of parts and components for, a consumer electronics, telecommunications, or computing product provide for a response to any particular technological measure, so long as the product does not otherwise contravene that Party’s measures implementing these paragraphs. The intention of this provision is that this Agreement does not require a Party to mandate interoperability in its law: there is no obligation for the information communication technology industry to design devices, products, components, or services to correspond to certain technological measures.
6. In providing adequate legal protection and effective legal remedies pursuant to paragraph 2, a Party may adopt or maintain appropriate limitations or exceptions to measures implementing the provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3. The obligations set forth in paragraphs 2 and 3 are without prejudice to the rights, limitations, exceptions, or defences to copyright or related rights infringement under the law of a Party.