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A
matrix F is a
rectangular array of numbers (elements) that has N rows and M columns (matrix
with size N x M). For example, here is a
3 x 4 matrix:

Matrices have fundamental importance in any graphics engine. Matrices are typically used to represent transformations (e.g., between coordinate systems, rotation, scale, translation, etc.).

Matrices for which N = M are called square. In graphics programming, matrices are often square, with size 3 x 3 or 4 x 4.

A vector is simply a matrix with N or M equal to 1. For example, this is column vector is a 3 x 1 matrix:

Two matrices are equal if and only if all elements are equal. Note this requires the matrices have the same size. For example:

Matrices have fundamental importance in any graphics engine. Matrices are typically used to represent transformations (e.g., between coordinate systems, rotation, scale, translation, etc.).

Matrices for which N = M are called square. In graphics programming, matrices are often square, with size 3 x 3 or 4 x 4.

A vector is simply a matrix with N or M equal to 1. For example, this is column vector is a 3 x 1 matrix:

Two matrices are equal if and only if all elements are equal. Note this requires the matrices have the same size. For example:

High

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