Single market & trade
Common standards set to a minimum but enforcement is strengthened in areas regulated at EU level; trade exclusively dealt with at EU level.
Economic & Monetary Union
Several steps are taken to consolidate the euro area and ensure its stability; the EU27 does less in some parts of employment and social policy.
Schengen, migration & security
Cooperation on border management, asylum policies and counter-terrorism matters are systematic.
Foreign policy & defence
The EU speaks with one voice on all foreign policy issues; a European Defence Union is created.
Significantly redesigned to fit the new priorities agreed at the level of the EU27
Capacity to deliver
Initial agreement on tasks to prioritise or give up is challenging; once in place, decision-making may be easier to understand; the EU acts quicker and more decisively where it has a greater role.