This study is a timely contribution to our understanding of how data protection regulations and international data flows affect international trade. It reviews the experience in different parts of the world and of different stakeholders. The study identifies key concerns that data protection and privacy legislation need to address. It also examines the present patchwork of global, regional and national frameworks to seek common ground and identify areas where different approaches tend to diverge. The last part of the study considers possible future policy options, taking the concerns of all stakeholders into account.